Alessandra Mossenta*, Marisa Michelini*
*Research Unit in Physics Education of the University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, Udine, 33100, Italy

EPC is a regional project of research, experimentation and training which proposes the informal education for the widespread of scientific culture through the school. In EPC ludic activities are proposed together with phenomenological exploration activities by means of the poor materials of the Exhibition GEI - Games, Experiments, Ideas -( to build a bridge between common sense experience and scientific school learning.
The project includes six activities: 1) expositive moment: school groups activities in the Showing of the 120 GEI experiments, which are offered TO MAKE and not only TO LOOK AT, with different degrees of difficulty: from the ludic exploration to the cognitive laboratory; 2) Teachers' training: discussion of the results of didactic research on the cognitive processes and role of the operativeness in the scientific learning process; integration of activities with the students in the GEI Showing and planning of class interventions. 3) Lending the equipment and the didactic materials useful to the proposals of activity with GEI; 4) University laboratory: a service addressed to single class groups, interested to carry out experimental exploration activities; 5) Competition for projects of experiments carried out by groups of young students; 6) Meeting of the students so that they may illustrate and discuss their works with other students of their same territory.

M. Michelini, A. Mossenta and L. Benciolini
Unità di Ricerca in Didattica della Fisica, Università di Udine
EPC is a regional project of research, experimentation and training aiming at the improvement of scientific learning through informal education at school. The six activities of EPC are based on GEI Exhibition (Games Experiments and Ideas; The EPC project, developed by the CIRD (Interdepartmental centre of didactic research) at the Udine university, is addressed to both pupils and teachers of primary and secondary school levels. In EPC the improvement and the innovation of scientific education, and the link between educational university research and school activities are further goals. The teachers choices with regard to EPC proposals are analysed and compared. The results are: A) most of assents to the proposals came from a region close to CIRD. This stresses the CIRD role to activate the teachers' training and didactic innovation; B) expositive moment of GEI and teachers' training were the most demanded activities; C) Primary school teachers' prefer phenomenological exploration activities, on the contrary the attention of secondary school teachers' are polarised to cognitive aspects, according to structural weakness in the Italian teachers education. The on-line experiments choice is relevant only in the secondary school. The cultural sensibility of high level school are close to the new technologies.
Silvia Jona Pugliese, Marisa Michelini
Research Unit in Physics Education, University of Udine, Italy
GEIWEB, an offspring of the interactive exhibit GEI (Giochi, Esperimenti, Idee - Games, Experiments, Ideas) which has been extensively described in several former GIREP-ICPE Meetings, is an interactive multimedial educational system for the teaching of science, especially physics, in schools and for teachers' formative/in-service education.
One section of GEIWEB features a choice of documentation on series of experiments organised by topic (Forces and Equilibrium, Electric Circuits, Incandescent Lamps, Light, The Sun, Thermal Processes and States). The styles of the topics reflect the personal preferences and educational experiences of the single developers: no attempt was made to make the style homogeneous. Their common character is that they are "experiments with a programme" - not only simply described but also discussed in their possible uses and educational implications. This makes them suitable materials not only for teacher training but also for teacher implementation and development at different school levels. In this paper we describe the section on Electric Circuits and the underlying educational "programme".
Marisa Michelini*, Renzo Ragazzon*, Lorenzo Santi*, Alberto Stefanel*
*Reseach Unit in Physics Education of the University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, Udine, 33100, Italy
A project for the didactic innovation and the teachers' training in quantum mechanics consists of two main phases: traditional main experiments (e.g.: Franck-Hertz, interference, polarisation); approach to Dirac to the theory. We outline a possible strategy to introduce the basic formalism of quantum mechanics without requiring an advanced mathematical or physical background. The "Dirac formulation" of Quantum Mechanics is developed by properly generalizing the description of a simple two-state system, namely the linear polarization of photons interacting with polaroids and birefringent crystals. We also discuss the relation between physical observables and linear operators, a connection which is usually considered as the "hardest" concept in Quantum Mechanics.
A feasability study has been allowed by an experimentation in the fifth class of a Liceo.
Marisa Michelini*, Lorenzo Santi*
*Research Unit in Physics Education of the University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, Udine, 33100, Italy
We have created a collection of cards dealing with the bouncing ball in order to place distinguished and modular teaching proposals at teachers’ disposal. The cards are integrable in different ways and not sequentially correlated, to conform to the teachers’ style and to the class background they are used in. The strategy we chose to employ to create the collection is the experimental data analysis, to be explained through the spread sheet and Interactive Physics. The focus is on the description and modeling of experimental data obtained by measurements aiming at studying interesting aspects of the phenomenon to be faced with.
The suggested methodology is the direct involvement of students into problems by asking them questions that urge them to autonomous exploring and meditation rather than guide their work.
Santi Lorenzo*, Michelini Marisa*, Rosangela Martongelli*, Alberto Stefanel*
*Research Unit in Physics Education, University of Udine ,Via delle Scienze 206, Udine, 33100, Italy
The objective of preparing materials for the support of didactic innovations in Physics education by means of the new computer technologies led us to formulate different kind of cards for teachers and for students, available even in the Web.
The cards’ features (synthetic, detailed, organized into sub-cards) are matter of research in relationship with teachers’ needs for updating the curricula, but there is a common planning, which implies the integration of phenomenological explorations by means of on–line sensors, with different degrees of analysis of the data. It consists of a careful exam of the processes, which takes place in the phenomena analyzed, in order to find a comparison with modelling activities carried out by means of general software tools and general utility systems, with high portability.
A brief description of some materials produced in the fields of mechanics and thermal processes is proposed, as far as the discussion about the usefulness of cards for the students, the nature of cards for teachers, the features of reference grids for the cards and the contribution to ideas of some proposals conceived for the work within the context of the class.
Giuseppe Marucci*, Marisa Michelini°, Lorenzo Santi°
*Italian Ministry of Education, ° Reseach Unit in Physics Education of the University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, Udine, 33100, Italy
LabTec is a national pilot project promoted by the Italian Ministry of Education to study and diffuse best practices and useful materials for the experimental activity, employing low cost materials, new technologies and telematic net to promote scientific learning. In-service teacher training integrating different formative models is the background of a process carried out for planning and experimenting innovative scientific activities and related materials. Different microteaching modules are implemented by 44 teachers of 22 schools of different towns located in the whole national area. Ten thematic group of cards for students were the common nucleus in the activities. A web site is the reference for distance training, after two periods of work in presence. A forum in telematic net for teachers and a discussion list for tutors were additional tools in the process. Interesting aspects in the experience are : the phases of the activity, the ways and tools in teachers’ training, the characteristics of cards for teachers and students, the role and the interaction between the involved subjects (scientific referents, tutors, teachers), the micromodules implemented by teachers, the role played by low cost and new technologies based scientific exploration in the learning processes.